What is a chemical reaction? | Types of chemical reactions

What is a chemical reaction? We've seen the paper burn to ashes. What is such a change called? Why did this happen? The substances found in nature undergo either physical changes or chemical changes.

When there is a chemical change, one type of substance becomes another type of substance. The process of chemical change is expressed as a chemical reaction.

what is a chemical reaction
what is a chemical reaction?

What is a chemical reaction? What are its types, what are the factors that affect it? All of these will be discussed in this article. Let us first understand what is a chemical reaction?

What is a chemical reaction?

The process by which one type of substance is converted into another type of substance is called a chemical reaction. In such a reaction, the basic properties of the substance also change.

When a chemical change occurs, the bonds in the molecules of the reacting substances break down due to heat, pressure, catalysts, etc. Atoms and molecules of the reacting substances are exchanged, organized, or dissolved to form a new product.

The chemical reaction is expressed by formula equations. The method of representing the substances involved and produced in a chemical reaction by means and formulas is called a chemical equation.

See also: What is greenhouse gases?

Reactive substance (Reactants)

Substances that take part in a chemical reactions are called reaction substances.

For example: In 2H2 + O2 ® 2H2O, H2 and O2 are reactants.

Manufactured substances (products)

The substances formed by chemical reactions are called products.

For example: In 2H2 + O2 ® 2H2O, 2H2O is a product.

Types of chemical reactions

Chemical reactions are divided into different types based on the process by which the reacting substances are chemically transformed into products. Some of the important types are as follows.

Combination reaction

A chemical reaction in which two or more reacting substances combine to form a single product is called a combination reaction. For example, let's look at the equations of reactions below.

2K + Cl2 ® 2KCL

Potassium + Chlorine ® Potassium Chloride

2Al + N2 ® 2AlN

Aluminum + Nitrogen ® Aluminum Nitrate

4Fe + 3O2 ® 2Fe2O3

Iron + Oxygen ® Ferric Oxide

2N1 + Cl2 ®  2Nacl

Nitrogen + Hydrogen ® Sodium Chloride

In all of the above reactions, the two reacting substances combine to form a single product, so these reactions are a combination reaction.

Decomposition reaction

A chemical reaction in which a single reaction substance decomposes into two or more produced substances due to heat, pressure, light, etc. is called a decomposition reaction. For example, let's look at the equations of reactions below.

2H2O  ® 2H2 + O2

Water ®  Hydrogen + Oxygen

NH4OH ® NH3 + H2O

Ammonium Hydroxide ®  Ammonia + Water

CaCo3 ® CaO + CO2

Calcium Carbonate ®  Calcium Oxide + Carbon Dioxide

2KClO3 ® 2KCl + 3O2

Potassium Chlorate  ® Potassium Chloride + Oxygen

Displacement reaction

Displacement reaction is the process by which atoms or radicals of one reacting substance are replaced by atoms or radicals of another reactive substance to form new products. For example, let's look at some of the displacement reaction equations below.

2K + 2HCl ®  2KCl + H2

Potassium + Hydrochloric Acid ® Potassium Chloride + Hydrogen

Ca +H2SO4  ® CaSO4 + H2

Calcium + Sulfuric Acid ® Calcium Sulfate + Hydrogen

NaCl + AgNO3 ® NaNO3 + AgCl

Sodium Chloride + Silver Nitrate ® Sodium Nitrate + Silver chloride

Acid-base reaction

The chemical reaction between acids and bases to form salts and water is called acid-base reaction. During the acid-base reaction, the acidity of the acid, and the alkalinity of the base are removed and neutral substances are formed. So this type of reaction is also called a neutralization reaction.

These are some examples of acid-base reactions.

NaOH + HCl ® NaCl +H2O

Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrochloric Acid ® Sodium chloride + Water

KOH + HNO3 ® KNO3 + H2O

Potassium Hydroxide + Nitric Acid ® Potassium Nitrate + Water

FeO + H2SO4 ® FeSO4 + H2O

Ferrous Oxide + Sulfuric Acid ® Ferrous Sulfate + Water

CaO + 2HCl ® CaCl2 + H2O

Calcium Oxide +Hydrochloric Acid ® Calcium Chloride + Water

Factors that affect a chemical reaction

Chemical reactions occur at different rates. The reaction between some substances is fast while the chemical reaction between some substances is slow. Some chemical reactions can occur only when the reacting substances come in contact, while some reactions require other conditions such as heat, pressure, catalysts, etc. Here we will learn about the factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction.

The factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction are as follows:

Temperature

Generally, as the temperature of the reacting material increases, the rate of a chemical reaction also increases. Reducing the temperature also reduces the rate of a chemical reaction. In order to increase the temperature, the reacting material has to be heated properly. As the temperature of the reacting material increases, their molecules become more movable. Molecules break down and regroup faster. Thus the rate of chemical reaction increases as the temperature rises.

Pressure

The chemical reaction between gases depends on the pressure of the reacting condition. Generally, as the pressure of gas increases, the rate of chemical reaction also gradually increases. In the case of high pressure, the chemical reaction is faster. The chemical reaction between some gases is possible only at high pressure. For example, high pressure is required to produce ammonia gas by a chemical reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen.

         High Pressure

N2 + 3H2             ®               2NH3

Surface area

During a chemical reaction, if the surface area of the reacting substances is less, the chemical reaction is slower. But if the surface area is large the chemical reaction becomes fast. Therefore, the rate of a chemical reaction can be increased by increasing the surface area of the reacting substances.

Light

Light is needed in any chemical reaction. In the presence of light the rate of chemical reaction increases. The following chemical reactions take place in the presence of light.

                               Sunlight

6CO2 + 6H2O          ®                         C6H12O6 + 6O2

Catalyst

Chemicals that increase or decrease the rate of a chemical reaction are called catalysts. These substances are not consumed after the chemical reaction is over and do not change. They only increase or decrease the rate of a chemical reaction. A catalyst that increases the rate of a chemical reaction is called a positive catalyst. Similarly, catalysts that reduce the rate of chemical reactions are called negative catalysts.

E.g.

        MnO2

2KClO3                     ®                       2KCl + 3O2

Here MnO2 acts as a positive catalyst.

C3H5(OH)3

2H2O2                      ®                       2H2O + O2

Here C3H5(OH)3 acts as a negative catalyst.

Characteristics of catalyst

At the end of the chemical reaction, there is no change in the weight and chemical composition of the catalyst.

They do not trigger a reaction. But they affect the speed of the chemical reaction that has already begun.

What is an exothermic reaction?

The chemical reaction that releases heat during a reaction is called an exothermic reaction.

Some examples of an exothermic reaction.

C + O2 ® CO2 + Heat

Zn + 2HCl ® ZnCl2 + H2 + Heat

See also: What is global warming

What is an endothermic reaction?

The chemical reaction that absorbs heat during a reaction is called an endothermic reaction.

Some example of an endothermic reaction.

N2 + O2 + Heat ® 2NO

Conclusion: Every moment we are surrounded by some kind of chemical reaction. From this, new substances are formed and some substances are destroyed.

I sincerely hope that I have given you a lot of information about what is a chemical reaction? as well as its types, and definition of different terms related to it. Please comment if you have any confusion. I request all of your readers to share this information on various social media so that our awareness remains and it will benefit everyone. I need your help so that I can give you more new information. Please subscribe to our website.

Thank you!

Post a Comment

0 Comments