What is nuclear energy and power? | nuclear fusion

What is nuclear energy? - Today the world is moving rapidly towards nuclear energy. Which nation is so powerful, it is being determined by the power of nuclear energy. After all, what is nuclear energy and why it is given so much importance? Developed countries are developing rapidly in nuclear power plants. Nuclear power plants can generate large-scale power continuously for several months, without interruption.

What is nuclear energy and power?

Despite the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan in the year 2011, nuclear power is considered as an important energy supply option worldwide. Atomic energy can be harmful to us as much as it is beneficial to us, if we forget even a small thing. If nuclear power goes to the wrong hands or is used in the wrong way, then it can become a curse for the whole humanity.

Today, in this article, I will try to give you information about what is nuclear energy, how it is produced, where it is used and how it is stored, etc. So first of all, we know that what is nuclear power.

What is nuclear energy?

The energy generated during nuclear fission is called nuclear energy. It is also called atomic energy. Nuclear fission is a chemical reaction in which a heavy Nucleus breaks down into two parts, along with 2 or 3 neutrons and radiation, emitting an immense amount of energy. Nuclear fission reaction is a chain reaction.

Uranium collides with neutrons and temporarily breaks uranium into two lighter elements. In this reaction, 2 or 3 neutrons and radiation with a huge amount of energy is released, which is called nuclear power. It is used in a nuclear power station in a peaceful way to produce electricity on a large scale.

Simple definition of atomic energy

The energy generated during a nuclear fission is called nuclear energy or nuclear power. A large amount of nuclear energy is extracted by colliding neutrons on uranium.

What is nuclear fission?

Nuclear fission is a chemical reaction in which a heavy Nucleus breaks into two. Nuclear fission reaction is a chain reaction. When a reaction occurs automatically from one reaction to another, it is called a chain reaction.

There are two types of chain reaction, uncontrolled chain reaction and controlled chain reaction. The uncontrolled chain reaction does not control the three newly released masses, causing the rate of fragmentation of the nuclei according to 13, 9, and 27. As a result, the energy is generated by a very intense vibration and in causing a lot of destruction in a short time.  Atomic bombs are manufactured on the basis of this principle.

The controlled chain reaction takes place slowly and the energy derived from it can be used for profitable works, this process is followed in nuclear reactor to produce nuclear power.

See also: What is Chemical Compounds?

History of nuclear energy

The history of nuclear power is related to nuclear fission reaction. Uranium was discovered in 1789 by German chemist Martin Klaproth and named Uranus. Years later, in 1932, James Chadwick discovered neutrons. Since then, there have been many discoveries on neutrons and in late 1938 Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann first demonstrated the nuclear fission reaction in Berlin.  After bombarding the neutrons on the uranium 235 atom, they found that the uranium Nucleus split into two blocks and released a large amount of energy.

Hahn and Strassmann showed that fission also emits extra neutrons with much higher energy, which was able to cause fission to other uranium nuclei; Leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction. A few days later it was experimentally confirmed by Joliet and her co-workers. After that Leo Szilard, who worked with Fermi in New York, proposed that uranium-235 isotopic more likely to fission than uranium-235. And fission will occur more effectively with a slower moving neutron than the fastest neutron. Also, Fermi proposed using a 'moderator' to slow down the emitted neutrons.

In 1939 Francis Perrin introduced the concept of the critical mass of uranium required to produce energy self-sufficiency. His theories were elaborated by Rudolf Pearce at the University of Birmingham and the resulting calculations were of considerable importance in the development of the atomic bomb.

In Paris, Perrin's group demonstrated that a chain reaction in the uranium-water mixture (water used to slow down neutrons) could persist, provided external neutrons were injected into the system. He demonstrated the idea of ​​introducing neutron-absorbing materials to limit the multiplication of neutrons and thus to control the nuclear reaction (which is the basis of the operation of an atomic power station). After that, the nuclear power project grew rapidly and many of the developed countries started investing huge amount in the field of nuclear power.

What is the source of nuclear energy?

Atomic energy is obtained from nuclear fission, nuclear decay and nuclear fusion reactions. Currently, nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium is done to obtain nuclear power. Heavy water or graphite is used as a moderator to control the reaction.

A uranium Nuclear fission emits too much energy and three new neutrons when neutrons are bombarded with uranium. These newly emitted neutrons fragment the other nuclei of uranium. In this way a series of fission of uranium nuclei is formed. Nuclear power is produced in nuclear reactors by controlling this chain reaction.

Uranium or plutonium is used as fuel in nuclear reactors. Cadmium or boron is used as a control rod in the reactor. This rod absorbs two of the three new neutrons released during fission of the nucleus, thereby controlling the reaction and converting the produced nuclear energy into electrical energy and is used for profitable purposes.

See Also: What is Science?

What is a nuclear reactor?

The atomic pile used for nuclear fission reaction is known as Nuclear reactor. It is a device that is used to initiate and control the self-stable atomic chain reaction.

Nuclear reactors are basically used for power generation.  In a nuclear reactor, a lot of heat can be produced from small amounts of fuel, While 300 million tons of coal is required to run a 1,000 W of thermal power plant, the same power generation is possible with only 30 tons of uranium in a nuclear reactor, and the electrical energy from the reactor is used in various industries.

Additionally, nuclear reactors are also used to produce shootonium. It is a better fissile material than uranium. Uranium is bombarded with rapid neutrons and converted into jutonium under a series reaction in a nuclear reactor.

What is nuclear power plant?

A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station, from which heavy electricity is produced. In this, the nuclear reactor is used as a heat source to heat water and transform it into steam which rotates the turbine to make electricity.

What is bad about nuclear energy?

The misuse of nuclear power can become a cause of the destruction of the whole of humanity. You must have heard about the atom bomb, which was used by the US in the Second World War on two big cities of Japan, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki. Because of which everything burned to ashes in a few seconds. From this, you can guess how bad it is for humanity.

Also, many types of radiation are emitted from a nuclear reactor designed for nuclear power, which can harm those working near the reactor, so thick concrete walls are built around the reactors, called preservatives.

A small mistake in nuclear reactors can take the form of a major accident. As in the year 2011, the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, with more than 18500 people killed, 160,000 were displaced.

According to the nuclear politician Rebecca Harms, the construction of a nuclear reactor costs around Rs.450 billion. Berlin's environmental scientist, Clutch Mets, says that even today, neither the technology to destroy old nuclear reactors has been developed, nor has there been a way to preserve nuclear waste.

What is nuclear energy used for?

Primary energy consumption has also increased due to the increasing population, a booming economy, and the desire for a good standard of living. Nuclear power produces electricity that is used to power homes, schools, businesses, and hospitals.

A single uranium pellet is slightly larger than a pencil eraser, with the same energy as one ton of coal, 3 barrels of oil, or 17,000 cubic feet of natural gas. Each uranium fuel pellet provides heat for five years to produce electricity. And because uranium is one of the world's most abundant metals, it can provide fuel for the world's commercial nuclear plants for generations to come.

Nuclear power also provides many benefits to the environment. Power plants do not burn any material, so they do not produce any combustion products. Additionally, because they do not produce greenhouse gases, nuclear plants help protect air quality, mitigate climate change, and reduce global warming.

When it comes to efficiency and reliability, no other power source can match the atomizer. Nuclear power plants can generate large-scale power continuously for a long time, without interruption.

Current state of nuclear energy

At present, there are around 500 nuclear reactors in 35 countries of the world. America is constantly increasing its nuclear power. China is building new reactors for 60 thousand MW of electricity every year. European countries have the largest number of nuclear reactors in the cross. So far, Poland, a country dependent on coal for electricity, has moved towards nuclear power.

There are 21 nuclear reactors currently operating in India and construction work of several reactors is also going on. Of the 21 operational reactors, 2 are boiling water reactors, 18 pressurized heavy water reactors and 1 pressurized light reactor, generating around 3,900 MW of electricity, which is 3% of the total power generated in the country.

Currently, nuclear power supplies more than 15 percent of the world's electricity and more than 20 percent of the energy in the United States.

Conclusion: nuclear energy is very important for us and at the same time it is harmful for the whole of humanity if it is used incorrectly. With natural oil and coal expensive, its mine is being finished day by day. Because of which the global attention towards nuclear energy is increasing rapidly.

In the end

In today's post, you have learned what is nuclear energy, as well as the History of nuclear energy, nuclear plant, Current state, etc. Hope you all like this article. You are requested; please share this article so that it can reach as many people as possible. We look forward to your support so that I can write more new articles.

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