What is Biology and its branches | Scope of Biology

What is biology, have you ever thought about it. Where these creatures on Earth come from did, is their life on other planets like Earth or not. There are many questions that science is still unable to answer completely.

Along with the developmental order of human civilization, research on the existing creatures on earth started. Because the animal has always been a companion of humans. At the same time, humans fulfill their food needs from various animals and plants.

What is Biology and its branches?

As we know there are three main branches of natural science, one of which is also biology. In biology, especially the study of organisms is done. In this article, we will know what is biology and its branches, history, sub-branches and importance of biology etc.

What is biology?

Biology generally means the creature's science. It is the branch of science under which organisms are studied. This includes the structure, function, development, origin, identity, distribution, and classification of organisms etc.

The term Biology is derived from the Greek word Bios "life" and the suffix Logos "study". That is, biology means the study of life. The term biology was introduced in 1802 by scientists named Lamarck and his companion Treviranus.

See Also: What is Mathematics?

Organisms are studied under biology. Its basic branches are botany, zoology, and microbiology. Also, there are other branches of biology such as biochemistry, cellular biology, ecology, evolutionary biology, genetics, molecular biology, physiology, etc.

In particular, plants are studied under botany, and animals are studied in zoology, similarly microorganisms are studied under microbiology. We will go into detail about its branches below.

Who is the father of biology?

Aristotle has been considered the father of biology. He did extensive studies of marine life and plants. Aristotle is the first person to contribute most in scientific zoology.

Who is the mother of biology?

Maria Sibayla Merian has been considered the mother of biology. She was a naturalist and scientific painter. Merian was born on 2 April 1647 in Frankfurt, Germany. She made some of the best records of flora and fauna in the seventeenth century and also known as one of the first European naturalists to observe pests directly.

What are the 3 major branches of biology?

Botany, zoology and microbiology are the 3 major branches of biology. Plants are mainly studied under botany, animals are studied under zoology and microorganisms are studied under microbiology.

History of biology

Ancient biology has a long history. However, modern biology has developed relatively recently. In the early phase of human civilization, humans studied the animals they hunted and also searched for the plants needed for their food and ensured its location. Before the agricultural era, humans used to ensure their food by finding the animals and plants they needed in the forest.

First agriculture and then medicine has been important for humans even from early history. China (2500 BC), Mesopotamia (2112 BC) and Egypt (1800 BC) are considered to be the earliest known medical texts based on the fact found till. But the origins of modern biology are often seen from ancient Greece linked to the formal study of medicine for Pharaoh Egypt.

In history, Aristotle has been considered the first person to contribute the most in scientific zoology. He did extensive studies of marine life and plants. His student, Theophrastus, dated to 300 BC. One of the oldest known botanical texts of the West was written in which the structure, life cycle and uses of plants are discussed. In 158AD the Roman physician Galen used his experience to patch up gladiators to write. Among the scholars of the Islamic world in the medieval era are the contributions of al-Jahiz (781–869), Al-Dinawari (828–896), who wrote on botany, anatomy and physiology. Medicine was particularly studied by Islamic scholars working in the Greek philosophical traditions.

Middle time History

During the Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci risked sensors to participate in human dissection and to create detailed structural drawings that are still considered among the most beautiful so far. The invention of the printing press and the ability to reproduce woodcut illustrations meant that it was very easy to record and disseminate information. One of the first illustrated biology books is a botanical text written in 1542 by the German botanist Leonhard Fuchs. The binomial classification was inaugurated in 1735 by Carolus Linnaeus, using Latin names of Latin species according to their characteristics.

Microscopes opened up new worlds for scientists. In 1665, Robert Hooke used a simple compound microscope to examine a thin sliver of cork. He observed that the tissue of the plant contained rectangular units that reminded them of the small rooms used by the monks. He called these units "cells". In 1676, Anton von Leeuwenhoek published the first portrait of living single-celled organisms. Theodore Schwann reported that animal tissue was also composed of cells in 1839.


During the Victorian era, and during the 19th century, "natural science" became frenzy. Thousands of new species were discovered and described by intrepid adventurers and backyard botanists and entomologists alike. In 1812, Georges Cuvier described fossils and speculated that the Earth had undergone long "gradual encounters of creation and destruction". On November 24, 1859, Charles Darwin published an article titled "the Origin of Species", which forever changed the world by showing that all living things are interconnected and that this species was not created separately. But originate from ancestral forms that change and take shape by adaptation to their environments.

Modern History

While much of the world's attention was captured on the questions of biology at the level of a macroscopic organism, a quiet monk was investigating how living things pass from one generation to another. Gregor Mendel is now known as the father of genetics, although there are papers on inheritance, published in 1866, largely unnoticed at the time. His work was resumed in 1900 and further understanding of the legacy was rapidly followed.

The coming generations of the 20th and 21st centuries can be known as the beginning of the "biological revolution". In 1953, Watson and Crick, while explaining the structure and function of DNA, rapidly expanded into all areas of biology and touched every aspect of our lives. The drug will be replaced by the development of therapy tailored to a patient's genetic blueprint or by combining biology and technology with a brain-controlled prosthesis. Economies rely on proper management of ecological resources, balancing human needs with conservation. We can find ways to save our oceans by using them to produce enough food to feed the nations. We can develop batteries from bioluminescent fungi from bacteria or light buildings. The possibilities are endless; it is coming into its own.

What are the branches of biology?

There are 3 main branches of biology which are botany, zoology and microbiology. And also many branches under these 3 main branches and as new research on biology is being carried out, its branches are also increasing day by day. Some of its special branches are as follows.

See also: What is Mathematics?

Botany: the branch of biology that studies plants including agriculture

Zoology: This is the second major branch of biology in which animals are studied, including animal behavior.

Microbiology: This is also another major branch in which microorganisms are studied.

Molecular Biology: The branch studied about biological molecules is molecular biology.

Cellular Biology: The basic cellular units of living things are studied in this branch. It is also called Cytology.

Anatomy: A branch to study the structure of organs and organ systems.

Ecology: This branch studies how organisms interact with their environment.

Evolutionary Biology: The subject of origins and changes in the diversity of life over time is studied in this branch.

Genetics: The genetic properties or heredity of organisms are studied in this branch.

Physiology: Physiology is the study of the functions of organisms and their organs.

Biochemistry: The study of the physical substances of organisms that make up living things takes place in this.

Taxonomy: The subject of nomenclature and classification of organisms is studied in this branch.

Paleontology: The branch that studies fossils is paleontology.

Importance of biology

It is the branch of science that helps us to study and understand the facts related to the microorganisms to the larger organisms. Along with the development order, many types of diseases have been seen in human beings. Today, new diseases are seen in organisms from time to time. Many of them take the form of epidemics. Biology helps us to understand and treat these diseases.

It helps us to know what kind of organism was on earth, its species, nature, destruction, etc., as well as the changes seen in the organisms in the future. Human beings are considered to be the best creatures because man has an immense ability to think and understand. Human beings have become capable of doing new research on the organisms, to change the properties of organisms according to their will.

Biology means knowledge of life. Humans must have knowledge of it to gain dominance over other organisms. We are taught about this subject from a small class in school so that we can learn about animals in an unbiased way.

Scope of biology

Biology is an area of ​​study that has a well-defined nature and immense scope. There are many branches of biology, in which all are studied to varying degrees. A person with a higher education degree in biology or in allied fields has a great scope. With a master's degree in biology, it becomes extremely easy to find attractive jobs. Following are some of the fields where one can get employment with Bachelor's degree in Biology or in allied fields:

  • Biological technician
  • Biochemist
  • Ecologist
  • Botanist
  • Pharmaceutical / Medical Product Sales Representative
  • Health Communications Specialist
  • Biology content developer
  • Horticulturist
  • Plant biochemist
  • Plant explorer
  • Farming consultant
  • Physician Assistant and Nurse Practitioner

Apart from these, a biologist can also do research work; find employment opportunities in the health sector / environmental management, and conservation, as the education sector.

What is the scope in biology after 12th?

After 12th, you get the opportunity to study many popular courses in biology. Of these, the most popular course is MBBS, those who want to become doctors are able to start studying MBBS. Also we have some of the following popular courses that can be started after passing 12th in Biology.

  • B SC

Conclusion: Biology gives us the knowledge of life and also helps us to know how we will live on earth to maintain our sovereignty.

In Last

In today's post, you have learned what is biology, as well as various branches of biology, its importance, scope etc. Hope you all like this article. You are requested; please share this article so that it can reach as many people as possible. I look forward to your support so that I can write more new articles.

Thank you!

Post a Comment